Until the sixteenth century the degree of Islamisation in Kosovo was minimal, and largely confined to urban centres.
The pace of conversions to Islam only increased significantly in the second half of the sixteenth century, possibly because converts thus became exempt from the cizje, a tax levied only on non-Muslims; the tax burden tended to go up as Ottoman power relative to foreign Christian powers came under challenge.
Islam in Kosovo has a long-standing tradition dating back to the Ottoman conquest of the Balkans, including Kosovo.
Before the Battle of Kosovo in 1389, the entire Balkan region had been Christianized by both the Western and Eastern Roman Empire.
During that period, Kosovars became increasingly secularized.
All told, the Red Cross estimated in the year 2000 that some 3,368 people remained missing, the majority of which were Albanian.
Prenk Gjetaj, the head of the Kosovo Government’s Missing Persons Commission, remarked that officials from the Serbian government had been informed that the excavations were ongoing.
Lasting from the 28th of February 1998 through the 11th of June 1999, the Kosovo War was a conflict between the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia at the time (consisting of Serbia and Montenegro) and the Kosovo Liberation Army, an Albanian rebel group.
So far as Catholic Albanians were concerned, the Catholic church was less powerful and privileged within the Ottoman Empire than the Serbian Orthodox Church (and less well staffed); the Bektashi order of dervishes carried out a conversion campaign which stressed the similarities between their version of Islam and Christianity (the Bektashis drank wine and had a quasi-Trinitarian doctrine).
A phenomenon of "crypto-Catholicism" developed in Kosovo Albanian society, where large numbers of people would convert officially to Islam but follow Catholic rites in private.
From 1389 until 1912, Kosovo was officially governed by the Muslim Ottoman Empire and, as such, a high level of Islamization occurred.